Genetic degradation of the white campion silene latifolia

Several of the mutants with intermediate stamen development that lost L26 resemble mutants described by Farbos et al. Among commonly known pollinators for this species, Hadena bicruris, a noctuid moth, is a specialist nursery pollinator and obligate seed predator [ 89 ].

Genetics dioecious flowering plants. A total of 59 primer combinations were used to amplify genomic DNA from eight males and eight females from each of our two independent populations.

This indicates that the loci are highly polymorphic and that homozygotes were extremely rare.

Y chromosome

All primer combinations that amplified male-spe- cific bands are listed at our website http: In recent years, EST projects have been initiated for numerous plant and animal species, and have generated a vast amount of sequence information that can be used for gene discovery, functional genetic studies, and marker development [ 24 ].

Intentional induction of gene mutations with a mutagensuch as a chemical such as ENU or radiation treatment of the germline. Femaleness is recessive to maleness and could only pair over the pseudoautosomal region on their q be caused by either loss of nuclear-encoded gene func- arms Figure 1; Westergaard ; Buzek et al.

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The leaves were dried and stored in silica gel. AFLP Vos et al. To focus on data by analyzing the frequency of codeletions to estab- the Y chromosome of the mutants, we initially selected lish gene order.

A LOD score of at least 3 is generally accepted as an indicator that two sequences are linked Hartwellet al. Both mutations were linked to large ground. Bars, 1 mm photo- mutant can be found at our website. At present, though, scent biosynthetic pathways remain uncharacterized in Silene.

First, studies in plants, animals, and fungi have shown that EST-SSRs are often more widely transferable between species, and even genera, than genomic SSR [ 2526 ].

Because relatively few studies report tests for Mendelian inheritance, it is still unclear how common non-Mendelian inheritance is. Males with an extra Y chromosome XYY tend to be somewhat taller than average. Cox, Statistical methods suppressing locus of males or restore male fertility to for multipoint radiation hybrid mapping.

Therefore, besides quantitative scent differences [ 6 ], three compounds produced in S. Westergaard himself proposed that recombina- Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, for their technical support tion suppression was essential to maintain the dioecious and expertise; Kristin Nicodemus of Duke University for statistical analysis assistance; our gardener Michael Sears for his care of our breeding system in Silene Westergaard In this positions of Y-linked sequences such as cDNA clones.

GPS co-ordinates and estimated number of individuals n were: In most cases, all the progeny were female, that lead to the minimal number of chromosome breaks indicating that Y chromosomes were too damaged to S. In all cases, we do not know if only one or several linked genes that affect a common phenotype are lost in each mutant.

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Plants for mutagenesis were Figure 1. Therefore, we removed the disruptive markers. L4 and L3 were also similar with the exception that two L4 data points were ambiguously scored from mutants UH2 and US They are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes [ 18 ], both in coding and noncoding regions, and are usually characterized by a high degree of length polymorphism.

Silene latifolia is the currently accepted Latin name for white campion. However, some recent literature refers to this species as Silene alba, and older literature refers to it as Lychnis alba or Melindrum.

Seeds mature in mid to late summer depending upon the latitude. Each fruit produces over seeds, and 80 to 90 percent of seeds germinate.

The dioecious white campion Silene latifolia (syn. Melandrium album) has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, that are larger than the autosomes and enable their separation by flow sorting.

The group of MROS genes, the first male-specifically expressed genes in dioecious plants, was recently identified in S.

latifolia. The White Campion, Silene latifolia Poiret, a member of the plant family Caryophyllaceae, is a dioecious herb. The species is diploid, has a large nuclear genome size (1C = Mbp) and a haploid chromosome number of The White Campion’s Masculinity Crisis. The Y chromosome of the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has undergone genetic degradation, losing some genes entirely from its Y chromosome.

Charlotte Gardener, Danielle Hewson, Abbie O’Connor, Francis Windram This year, Bergero et al. Our observations confirmed a classical genetic prediction that S. latifolia has three dispersed male-determining loci on the Y chromosome, one for carpel suppression, one for early stamen development, and another for late stamen development.

Patterns of Mutation in the Silene latifolia Genome Two of the 39 de novo mutations appeared in sex-linked sequences: one T to G substitution on the Y chromosome (scaffold 8, position 5,) and another T to G substitution on the X chromosome (scaffold 1, position 27,).

Genetic degradation of the white campion silene latifolia
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The Mutation Rate and the Age of the Sex Chromosomes in Silene latifolia - ScienceDirect